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九年级英语新目标初中语法总结及练习 非谓语动词-动名词及分词  

2015-02-05 09:20:28|  分类: 初中新目标 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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初中语法总结及练习

〔九〕非谓语动词-动名词及分词

动名词 动名词同时具有 ____ 特性及____的特征,它的动词特征是它可有宾语和状语;它的名词特征是它可做主语、宾语。

动名词的形式:否定式为 ______ doing, 完成式为 ________,被动式为__________ /having been done
□动名词可充当: 主语(Seeing is believing);谓语动词必须用 ___ 数形式; 作表语(be+:注意比较His job is washing clothes/he is washing<现在分词> clothes);作定语reading room ※动名词与所修饰的名词没有逻辑主谓关系,试比较missing<现在分词> bike);作补语I saw this robbing Peter to pay Paul.(我把这叫做拆了东墙补西墙); _______词、______ 词的宾语(enjoy doing, look forward to doing)
动名词与不定式作直接宾语时在含义上区别
forget doing/to do sth.remember doing/to do sth. stop doing sth.
stop to do sth. regret doing sth. 表示后悔过去做过某一件事情regret to do sth.意思是对正在做的,或者是还未做事情表示后悔want, need, require表示需要的意思时,后面常使用动名词或不定式被动式This car needs repairing. →This car needs____________ (repair).
动名词常用句型  ①go + doing sth. 去做……②be worth doing sth. ③can't help + doing sth. ④be used to + doing sth. ⑤It is no use(good)+doing sth. ⑥forgive sb. for doing sth./prevent sb. from doing sth.⑦ without + doing sth. 没有做…………She kept sitting there without saying to anybody.她一直坐在那里,默不做声。⑧ no + doing...表示禁止,不准No parking.

分词分为 _____ 分词和 _____ 分词两种形式。

□现在分词与过去分词比较
所表示语态不同: 现在分词具有主动和进行的含义,常用于修饰______;而过去分词含有被动的意思,经常用于说明_____情况。如:an exciting film/the excited people
所表示时间不同:现在分词表示正在进行的动作、行为;而过去分词是说明 ________动作或行为。如:developing countries /developed countries

所表示语义不同:多数现在分词可译为使人怎样……”;用来说明事或物的性质;而过去分词的含义为某人感到怎样……”,说明人感觉。
其它:moving/moved, amusing/amused, boring/bored, astonishing/astonished, discouraging/discouraged, disappointing/disappointed, frightening/frightened, inspiring/inspired, amazing/amazed
所用修饰语不同: 现在分词之前常用表示程度修饰语 ______,而过去分词之前常用muchThe game is  very exciting. We’re ______ excited at the game.

 

现在分词有____词和形容词的双重特性,可作定状补表,有时式和语态的变化,有逻辑主语。
现在分词常可用作定语、表语<常表示性质,不表动作>( interesting,)现在分词短语一般置于所饰的名词之_____ The car parking under the tree.

现在分词用作补语  ※表示感官动词接现在分词,表示动作正在发生(notice, watch)使役动词 (have, get, keep, leave) 如:I kept the boy _____ (wait).※用作主补,常用于被动语态中 如:He was seen stealing money.

现在分词常可用作状语   表时间,可置于句首、中、末,如:She drove away_____ (cry).分词动作与谓语动作同时发生; Climbing to the top, I saw it. 分词动作与谓语动作先后发生; Not___________ (finish)the homework, he had to stay up late at night .完成式表示分词动作在谓语动作之前发生。※现在分词之前可用连词whenwhile(e.g. when sleeping) 强调与谓语动词的动作同时发生。※表原因,可置于句中、末,: _____ (be) sick I stayed at home.※表条件,可置于谓语之前或之后,如:I’ll be better off walking.
※表让步,如:_________ (know) this, they made me pay for this coat.※表结果、方式,如:She threw the doll on the floor _______ (break) it to pieces;

现在分词短语具有替代从句作用替代定语从句 Students wishing to go hiking should sign their names here.=Students who wish to go hiking should sign their names here.替代状语从句作用Knowing that he couldn't solve the problem in this way, he changed his mind. (Because he knew that he couldn't solve the problem in this way, he changed his mind.)※分词独立主格结构 分词或者分词短语作状语使用时,其逻辑主语一定要和句子的主语一致。如果不一致,须在分词之前加上它逻辑主语,这就是独立主格结构。After a little while, her eyes being full of tears, the mother came over and embraced him.
经常使用现在分词句型 be busy + doing sth. /spend (waste) time(money)+doing sth. /catch (find) sb.+ doing sth. 抓住、发现某人在做某事I found myself lying on the ground.(=I found that I was lying on the ground.)/have sb. + doing sth. ()某人做某事 e.g. Do you have anybody sending your daughter home?/keep sb. + doing sth 让某人持续做某事

过去分词具有___词和形容词的双重特性。在句中的作用相当于形容词和副词,在句中可用作定、状、补、表语。
□过去分词可用作定语<常表已完成的动作,但过去分词短语作定语时常置于所修饰的名词之___>;用作表语,如 be surprise with <有时可用于倒装句中,如Gone are the days>
□用作状语,表示时间、原因、条件、让步、方式或伴随。_____(When/while) Heated, the mental expands.(受热即膨胀)_____Gone from home so long, he looks forward to the meeting with his old friends._____United, we stand; divided, we fall._____ (Although)Fell far behind from the others, he still keeps on trying._____She stood there much disappointed.  填写时间、原因、条件、让步、方式或伴随)
□用作补语※用作宾补时,其前的动作多为感官动词和使役动词<find, leave, want, ‘d like>E.g. He is having their house_____ (paint) .※用作主补The fire is reported controlled.
□用作表语时,相当于形容词;过去分词用于被动态时,则表动作。The road is completed. (竣工)

九年级英语新目标初中语法总结及练习 非谓语动词-动名词及分词 - 英语教师网 - 英语教师网的博客

 
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