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16种时态  

2014-05-30 09:33:24|  分类: 教案 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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时态

时态(Tense)是表示行为、动作和状态在各种时间条件下的动词形式。因此,当我们说时态结构的时候,指的是相应时态下的动词形式。英语共有十六种时态,其表现形式如下(play为例)

 

 

一般时态

进行时态

完成时态

完成进行时态

 

现在

 

play

 

plays

 

 

is

am     playing

are

 

 

has

       played

have

 

has

       been playing

have

 

过去

 

 

 

played

 

 

was

        playing

were

 

 

 

had    played

 

 

had    been playing

 

将来

 

shall

        play

will

 

 

shall

        be playing

will

 

shall

        have played

will

 

shall

        have been playing

will

过去将来

 

Should

         play

would

 

should

        be playing

would

 

should

        have been played

would

 

should

         have been playing

would

 

 
1. 一般现在时:
(1)表示习惯的,永久性的或反复发生的动作(常同often, sometimes, usually, always, twice a month, every week, on Sundays, occasionally, generally, weekly, now and then, every so often, as a rule, rarely等状语连用)
例句: I go to school everyday.
(2)表示特征,能力或显示的情况或状态
     例句:She loves music.
  (3)表示普遍真理或事实,也用在格言中
     例句:The earth moves around the sun.
           No man but errs.人非圣贤,孰能无过。
 
2. 一般过去时:表示过去某个特定时间或某一段时间发生的动作或情况,时间状语:ago, yesterday, the day before yesterday, last week, last (year, night, month…), in 1989, just now, at the age of 5, one day, long long ago, once upon a time, etc.
例句:Tom suddenly fell yesterday.
 
3. 一般将来时:例句:He will come next week
  可表示将来时的其他结构:
be going to +动词原形,表示决定打算要做什么,或可能出现什么情况。Look! It’s going to rain.
be +动词不定式,表示计划,安排,或用来征求意见。The museum is to be opened in May.
be about to+动词不定式,表示即将发生的动作,句中不可用表示未来时间的状语
   例句:The talk is about to begin.(正确)
         The talk is about to begin soon.(错误)
on the point ( verge, eve, brink) of,表示即将发生的事The two countries are on the point of war.
 
4. 一般过去将来时:
(1)表示从过去某时看将来将要发生的动作或存在的状态。
例句:He said he would wait for us at the bus stop.
(2)表示过去的某种习惯性行为,只用would
 例句:Whenever we had trouble, he would come to help us.
表示过去将来的几种结构:was/ were going to do, was/ were about to do, was/were on the point of doing, was/ were due to do, was/ were to do.
 
5. 现在进行时:
(1)表示现在正在进行的动作或发生的事
例句:What are you doing now, John?
   (2)表示某个按最近的计划或安排将要进行的动作,或即将开始或结束的动作。常用的这类动词有:go, leave, come, arrive, land, meet, move, return, start, stop, do, dine, have, pay, join, punish, spend, sleep, take, change, fly, work, wear, see, lunch, play等。
      例句:He is meeting the manager tomorrow.
            I’m going/ leaving. 我要走了
(3)表示反复多次或习惯性的动作
  例句:We are eating only vegetables and fruits during the summer.
        The bird is jumping up and down in the cage.那只鸟在笼子了不停的上下跳着
 
6. 过去进行时:表示过去某一时刻或阶段正在发生的动作
例句:I was practicing the violin at eight o’clock yesterday evening.
 
7. 将来进行时:表示将来某个时刻正在进行或持续的动作。
例句:He asked me what I would be doing when he came the next day.
 
8. 过去将来进行时:表示从过去某时看将来正在进行的动作或计划中的事(常用于宾语从句中)。例句:John told us that Mary would be coming next day.
 
9. 现在完成时:
(1)表示过去所发生的动作或事情对现在的影响或产生的结果,着眼点在现在。常与不确定的过去时间状语连用,如:yet, just, before, recently, once, lately, 等;也同表示频度的时间状语连用,如:often ever, never, sometimes, twice, on several occasions等;也同表示包括现在时间之内的时间状语连用:now, today, this morning, this year等。但不能同特定的时间状语连用,如in 1993, last year等。
例句:She has not finished her homework yet.
      I have heard this twice.
      We ‘ve had too much rain this year.
(2)表示一个从过去某个时间开始,延续到现在,并可能延续下去的动作,常同表示一段时间段的状语连用:so far, up to now, since, for a long time, up till now, up to present, for the past few years, these few days
  例句:He has worked here for over twenty years.
(3)某些瞬间性动词,在现在完成时中,不能同表示一段时间的状语连用,常见的这类动词有:come, go, begin, start, become, arrive, get(到达,收到), reach, leave, join, end, find, lose, fall, jump, knock, marry
  例句:Harry has got married for six years. (错误)
        Harry got married six years ago. (正确)
        Harry has been married for six years. (正确)
10. 过去完成时:表示在过去某个动作或某个具体时间之前已经发生或完成的动作和情况
例句:I had finished my homework before supper.
 
11. 将来完成时:by the time of; by the end of+时间短语(将来); by the time+从句(将来)
(1)表示将来某时之前或某动作发生之前已经完成的动作
例句:I shall have finished it by the end of this week.
(2)表示对现在或将来可能已经完成的动作的推测
例句:She will have arrived by now.她这是可能已经到了。
 
12. 过去将来完成时:表示从过去某个时间看将来某时之前已将完成的动作。
例句:He said that they would have arrived by seven o’ clock.
 
13. 现在完成进行时:表示从过去某事开始发生,一直延续到现在并可能延续下去的动作。
例句:I have been waiting for an hour but she still hasn’t come.
 
14. 过去完成进行时:
(1)表示过去某个时间之前一直在进行的动作,这个动作可能延续下去,也可能不延续下去。
例句:The telephone had been ringing for three minutes before it was answered.
(2)表示反复的动作,企图,情绪,最近的情况等。
    例句:He had been telling you this.他多次跟你说这件事。(=He has told you this many times.
 
15. 将来完成进行时:表示将来某时,某事之前已在发生的动作,一直延续到将来某一时间,是否
延续下去,要视上下文而定,常同表示将来某一时间的状语连用。
例句:By the time the sun set, they will have been working on the farm for six hours.
 
16. 过去将来完成进行时:表示从过去某一时间开始一直延续到过去将来某一时间,是否延续下去,
    视上下文而定。
例句:He said that by the end of the year he would have been studying English for three years.

 

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